- by Medikoe Health Expert
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- Feb 09 2017
What is a Cardiac Tumor?
Cardiac tumors can be primary or malignant. They can occur in any cardiac tissue and can cause valvular or inflow-outflow tract obstruction, thromboembolism, arrhythmias, or pericardial disorders.
Classification of Primary Tumors
Primary cardiac tumors may be:
- Benign (Nearly 80% of cases)
- Malignant (Remaining 20%)
Benign Primary Tumors
Myxoma: It is most common and men are more affected by it. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium, and the rest occur in the other chambers as a solitary tumor. They can be up to 15 cm in diameter. They may be myxoid and gelatinous, smooth, firm, and lobular or friable and irregular.
Papillary fibroelastomas: They are the 2nd most common benign primary tumor. They occur on the left side of the heart, predominantly on the aortic and mitral valves.
Rhabdomyomas: They account for 20% of all primary cardiac tumors and 90% of those in children. They are usually multiple and located intramurally in the septum or free wall of the left ventricle.
Fibromas: They mainly occur in children and are associated with adenoma sebaceum of the skin and kidney tumors. They occur primarily on the left side of the heart, are often located within the ventricular myocardium.
Hemangiomas: They account for 5 to 10 % of benign tumors.
Teratomas: They mainly affects infants and children and about 90% are located in the anterior mediastinum.
Lipomas: They occur in the endocardium or epicardium and have a large pedunculated base.
Paragangliomas: They are located at the base of the heart near vagus nerve endings.
Pericardial cysts: They resemble a cardiac tumor on chest X-ray.
Malignant Primary Tumors
Sarcoma: It is the most common malignant primary cardiac tumor and mainly affect middle-aged adults. Almost 40% are angiosarcomas which occur in the right atrium and involve the pericardium. Other types include undifferentiated sarcoma (25%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (11 to 24%), leiomyosarcoma (8 to 9%), fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and osteosarcoma.
Pericardial mesothelioma: It is rare and affects all ages. It affects males more than females. It causes tamponade and constriction and can metastasize to the spine, adjacent soft tissues and heart failure.
Primary lymphoma: It is extremely rare and usually occurs in AIDS patients or other people with immunodeficiency.
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