- by Bangalore Nethralaya Super Specialaity Eye Hospital
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- Jul 12 2017
Visual Impairment-what is it?
The human eye is like a camera that gathers, focuses, and transfers light through a lens to generate an image of its habitat. In a camera, the picture is created on film or an image detector. In the eye, the image is created on the retina, a thin layer of light-sensitive tissue behind the eye.
Just like a camera, the human eye controls the quantity of light that enters the eye. The iris (the colored round segment of the eye) controls the amount of light passing via the pupil. It opens it wider in dim light and closes up the pupil in bright light. The cornea is the translucent, defensive surface of the eye. Just like the lenses it assists to focus light, sitting right behind the iris.
The retina reforms the light into nerve signals, when light penetrates the eye. The retina then sends these signals along the optic nerve (a cord of more than 1,000,000 nerve fibers) to the brain. The eye cannot be in touch with the brain, without a retina or optic nerve, and makes vision unobtainable.
What Is Visual Impairment?
The eyesight of a visually impaired individual can’t be put right to a “normal level”, as per the definition of vision impairment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
It may be said that visual impairment is the functional restriction of the eye or eyes or the vision arrangement. This leads to–
Loss of visual sharpness and ineffectiveness of the person to see objects as distinctly as a healthy person
Loss of visual field meaning ineffectiveness of person to see as wide an area as the normal person without moving the eyes or turning the head.
Diplopia – double vision
Photophobia – Incompetence to look at light
Visual intuitive problem or issues of recognition
Visual imbalance or disfigurement of images
Or any blend of the above characteristics
Types of visual impairment
Some individuals are totally blind, but many others have what is called legal blindness. They haven't lost their sight entirely but have lost adequate sight that they'd have to stand twenty feet from an object to see it as well as someone with flawless vision could from two hundred feet away.
Signs and symptoms of possible vision disorders
If you observe any of the following eye changes, visit your ophthalmologist or optometrist straight away, even if you've been to your eye doctor lately:
Extreme, sudden eye pain
Repeated pain in or around the eye
Foggy, faded, or double vision
Seeing glare of light or sudden bright drifting patches
Seeing rainbows or halos around lights
Glimpse of a screen coming over one eye
Seeing floating "spider webs"
Unusual, even painful, sensitivity to light or glare
Sensing a ink filled in one eye
Changes in the color of the iris
Swollen, red eyes
Sudden growth of constant floaters
White areas in the pupil of the eye
Itching, burning, or a heavy discharge in the eyes
Any sudden change in vision
Causes visual impairment
People seldom lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's generally caused by an injury like getting hit in the eye or head with a ball or having a vehicle accident.
Some infants have inborn blindness, which means they are visually impaired at birth. A number of things could be the cause of congenital blindness — it can be inherited, for example, or caused by an infection (like German measles) that's transferred from the mother to the growing fetus during pregnancy.
Conditions that may leadto loss of vision loss after birth involve:
Basic tests an eye specialist may perform include:
Visual acuity test
Visual field test
Treatment and Management
Treatment for impaired vision depends on the certain eye-related disorders that you have
Control of diabetes: This prevents advancement of diabetic retinopathy and resulting visual impairment to some extent. Yet, this may be of little help in advanced cases.
Cataract surgery: In cases of visual impairment due to cataracts, surgery may be chosen.
Magnification systems – This is performed using suitable lens, reading telescopes or surgical procedures etc
Glaucoma – Medications in eye drops are advised to manage glaucoma.
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