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The Echo of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Medikoe Wellness Expert

Medikoe Wellness Expert

  80 feet road indira nagar, Bengaluru     Aug 5, 2021

   2 min     

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Overview

Clinical symptoms of active TB (tuberculosis) can range from a mild cough to more severe reactions, like irreversible lung damage and, ultimately, death, depending on disease progression. Additionally, with its clinical presentation, tuberculosis has been linked with several other disease-induced systemic complications, including glucose intolerance and hyponatremia. Here, we provide an overview of the known, although ill-described, underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the clinical and systemic presentations associated with this disease and discuss novel hypotheses recently generated by various omics technologies. This summative update can assist clinicians in improving the tentative diagnosis of tuberculosis based on a patient's clinical presentation as well as their aid in the development of improved treatment protocols particularly aimed at restoring the disease-induced irregularity for overall homeostasis while concurrently eradicating the pathogen. Moreover, future applications of this knowledge could be used for personalised diagnostic and therapeutic options, improving the treatment outcome and quality of life of tuberculosis patients.

Active pulmonary tuberculosis

Active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is currently the leading cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. The clinical symptoms of pulmonary TB develop slowly and are nonspecific. These may include a prolonged cough with mucus, pleuritic chest pain, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing, weakness or progressive fatigue, cachexia/weight loss, loss of appetite (resulting in anorexia), chills/fever, night sweats, and malaise. Apart from these well-known clinical symptoms, several other secondary systemic complications have also been linked to TB, including increased oxidative stress, hyponatremia, hypocholesterolemia, glucose intolerance, haematological manifestations, vitamin D deficiency, and an altered host microbiota.

Primary versus Post-Primary Active Pulmonary TB

Active/progressive pulmonary TB is classified as either primary or post-primary pulmonary TB (the latter is also known as secondary or reactivation TB), and various studies have confirmed that susceptibility to these is governed by different genes. Although both of these disease states have similar radiological presentations, primary TB is more common in infants and children than in adults (23% to 34%). Progressive primary TB describes patients diagnosed with active TB for the first time; hence, these patients have not had any prior M. tuberculosis infection and are unable to contain the disease in its latent form due to unknown factors. 

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Tags:  bacterial infections,Allergies and Infections,Diseases ,Active pulmonary tuberculosis, symptoms of pulmonary TB, symptoms of active TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pleuritic chest pain, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing, weakness

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