Hyperdontia: Symptoms and Causes
Dr. Divya G Nair
New thippasandra, Bengaluru Mar 27, 2018
Hyperdontia is characterized by having an excess number of teeth. There are 20 primary teeth and 32 permanent teeth. A person who develops more than 20 primary teeth and more than 32 teeth has hyperdontia. The additional teeth are referred to as supernumerary teeth.
The most common supernumerary teeth are permanent, anterior incisors, in the upper arch. After maxillary incisors, maxillary and mandibular fourth molars are the next most common supernumerary teeth. An extra maxillary incisor is called mesiodens, and an extra fourth molar is called as distodens or distomolar. Extra primary teeth are called as natal teeth.
Risk factors include syndromes such as:
- Cleidocranial dysplasia
- Ehler-Danlos syndrome
- Gardner syndrome
- Cleft lip palate
The growth of extra teeth behind or close to primary or permanent teeth.
Shape of supernumerary teeth
- Supplemental: Same to the type of tooth that it grows near.
- Tuberculate: The tooth has a tube or barrel-like shape.
- Compound odontoma: The tooth is made up of several small, tooth-like growths near each other.
- Complex odontoma: Rather than a single tooth, an area of tooth-like tissue grows in a disordered group.
- Conical, or peg-shaped: The tooth is wide at the shape and narrows out near the top.
They are diagnosed by dental X-ray and CT scan.
Treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when possible.