Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
N Papa Rao
Kothaguda (kvrangareddy), Bengaluru Jul 13, 2019
Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever or dandy fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that can lead to a severe flu-like illness. The infection causes a flu-like illness and occasionally develops into a potentially lethal complication called severe Dengue. About half of the world's population is now at risk due to Dengue Fever. It is most common in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.
Severe Dengue was first recognized in the 1950s during dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. Now it affects most Asian and Latin American countries and has become a leading cause of death among children and adults.
Dengue is caused by Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. It is a single-stranded RNA positive-strand virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. DENV causes a wide range of disease in humans, from a self-limited Dengue Fever (DF) to a life-threatening syndrome called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS).
There are four antigenically different serotypes of the virus:
The incidence of Dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades.
WHO recent estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95% credible interval 284–528 million), of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease). The number of cases reported increased from 2.2 million in 2010 to 3.2 million in 2015. In 2015, Delhi, India, recorded its worst outbreak since 2006 with over 15 000 cases.
Dengue Fever Causes
It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito which is a primary vector of Dengue, and it is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. After incubation with the virus for 5-10 days, an infected mosquito can transmit the virus for the rest of the life.
When a person is suffering from high fever (40°C/104°F), then he can be suspected of having Dengue.
Dengue Fever Symptoms
Symptoms of Dengue Fever are a severe headache, pain behind the eyes, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and rashes. Symptoms of Dengue last for 2-7 days.
If a person is suffering from Severe Dengue, then there may be a decrease in temperature (below 38°C/100°F).
Symptoms of Severe Dengue include severe abdominal pain, continuous vomiting, and rapid breathing, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness and blood in vomit.
Immunization of Dengue Fever
In late 2015 and early 2016, the first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) by Sanofi Pasteur, was registered in several countries for use in individuals 9-45 years of age living in endemic areas.
Dengue Fever Diet
There are some nine food items which help you recover from illness the fastest:
Papaya: Papaya leaves are the best food for dengue patients. Take fresh papaya leaves, crush and squeeze them to extract the juice.
Orange: Orange juice is great for digestion; it increases the urinary output and consequently promotes antibodies for faster recovery.
Porridge: It provides strength, and it is easy to swallow.
Lemon Juice: It helps in removing toxins from the body and helps to get the virus excreted via urine.
Coconut water: It replenishes electrolytes, minerals and other trace minerals lost by the body to dehydration.
Vegetable juice: Pure organic vegetable juices can provide all the basics of human nutrition and help for a speedy recovery.
Protein-Rich Foods: Milk, eggs and other dairy products should be consumed as proper meals.
Avoid Oily Food: Avoid oily food as it will worsen your condition.
Dengue Fever Prevention and control
We can control the transmission of mosquitoes by applying the following methods:
• Disposing of solid and liquid waste properly.
• Covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis.
• Applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers.
• Always close windows and doors, wear full-sleeved clothes, use insecticides treated materials, coils and vaporizers.
• By applying insecticides.