- by Dr Dayanand Suryavamshi
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- Oct 27 2017
Dengue: An Acute Illness
Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever or dandy fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that can lead to a severe flu-like illness. The infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue. About half of the world's population is now at risk due to Dengue Fever. It is most common in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.
Severe dengue was first recognized in the 1950s during dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. Now it affects most Asian and Latin American countries and has become a leading cause of death among children and adults.
Dengue is caused by Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavvirus. It is a single stranded RNA positive-strand virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. DENV causes a wide range of disease in humans, from a self-limited Dengue Fever (DF) to a life-threatening syndrome called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS).
There are four antigenically different serotypes of the virus:
The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades.
WHO recent estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95% credible interval 284–528 million), of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease). The number of cases reported increased from 2.2 million in 2010 to 3.2 million in 2015. In 2015, Delhi, India, recorded its worst outbreak since 2006 with over 15 000 cases.
It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito which is a primary vector of dengue and it is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. After incubation with virus for 5-10 days, an infected mosquito can transmit the virus for the rest of the life.
When a person is suffering from high fever (40°C/104°F), then he can be suspected having Dengue.
Symptoms of Dengue Fever are: Severe headache, pain behind the eyes, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and rashes. Symptoms of dengue last for 2-7 days.
If a person is suffering from Severe Dengue then there may be a decrease in temperature (below 38°C/100°F).
Symptoms of Severe Dengue include: severe abdominal pain, continuous vomiting, and rapid breathing, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness and blood in vomit.
In late 2015 and early 2016, the first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) by Sanofi Pasteur, was registered in several countries for use in individuals 9-45 years of age living in endemic areas.
Prevention and control
We can control transmission of mosquitoes by applying following methods:
Disposing of solid and liquid waste properly.
Covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis.
applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
Always close windows and doors, wear full-sleeved clothes, use insecticides treated materials, coils and vaporizers.
By applying insecticides.
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