- by Medihope Super Speciality Hospital
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- May 03 2017
Coronary Artery Disease: Symptoms and Causes
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common kind of heart disease. CAD occurs when the arteries that provide blood to heart muscle become hard and narrowed. This is due to the increase of cholesterol and other material which are called plaque, on their inner walls. This buildup is called atherosclerosis. As it increases, less blood can move through the arteries. As a consequence, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it requires. This can head to chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Maximum heart attacks take place when a blood clot abruptly cuts off the hearts' blood supply, causing permanent heart damage.
Over time, CAD can also debilitate the heart muscle and contribute to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure means the heart can not pump blood properly to the rest of the body. Arrhythmias are the transformation in the normal beating rhythm of the heart.
If your coronary arteries get restricted, they can't supply sufficient oxygen-rich blood to your heart — specifically when it is beating hard, example during exercise. At first, the reduced blood flow may not bring about any coronary artery disease symptoms. As plaque lasts to build up in your coronary arteries, you may grow coronary artery disease signs and symptoms, such as:
Chest pain (angina).
You may feel a burden or tightness in your chest, as if someone is standing on your chest. This pain, referred to as angina, generally occurs on the middle or left side of the chest. Angina is usually triggered by physical or emotional stress.
The pain normally goes away within minutes after stopping the stressful or troublesome activity. In some people, especially women, this pain may be temporary or sharp and felt in the neck, arm or back.
Shortness of breath.
If your heart can not pump sufficient blood to meet your body's needs, you may grow shortness of breath or extreme fatigue with exertion.
An entirely blocked coronary artery might cause a heart attack. The standard signs and symptoms of a heart attack include burdensome pressure in your chest and hurt in your shoulder or arm, sometimes with abruptness of breath and sweating.
Women are slightly more likely than men are to suffer less typical signs and symptoms of a heart attack, such as neck or jaw pain. Sometimes a heart attack happens without any obvious signs or symptoms.
Coronary artery disease is considered to start with the damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery, sometimes as early as adolescence. The damage may be caused by different factors, including:
High blood pressure
Diabetes or insulin resistance
Once the inner wall of an artery is defective, fatty deposits (plaque) made of cholesterol and other cellular waste products likely to accumulate at the site of injury in a procedure called atherosclerosis. If the surface of the plaque splits or ruptures, blood cells which are called as platelets will clump at the site to try to restore the artery. This clump can block the artery, which leads to a heart attack.
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