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Azoospermia: Types, Causes, Symptoms

Medikoe Health Expert

Medikoe Health Expert

  Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru     Sep 23, 2020

   7 min     



Generally speaking, couples are taken into consideration infertile after approximately a 12 months of looking to conceive with unprotected sex. Crossing the invisible line into the infertility may be overwhelming and intimidating. Aside from feeling like pregnant bulletins are published anywhere you look, you could fear approximately your normal fitness and now no longer understand what to do next.

You’re now no longer alone. Some 12 to thirteen in one hundred couples revel in infertility. Up to 50 percent of those instances may be attributed to what’s known as male-issue infertility. Azoospermia is a likely cause, that is marked with the aid of using a complete loss of sperm withinside the semen. While rare, approximately 1 percent of fellows have azoospermia, and it’s the basis of among 10 to fifteen percent of infertility instances.

No Sperm Count

Here’s a fast lesson in how the body works: Sperm is created within the testicles. It travels through the reproductive tract and mixes with the fluid that’s found within the seminal ducts. Together, the sperm and this fluid make semen —- the thick, white ejaculate that comes out of the penis.

With azoospermia, the sperm is taken out of the equation. you will have ejaculate, but it doesn’t contain sperm. you'll be at home with the term “low sperm count” — but azoospermia, on the opposite hand, is brought up as “no sperm count.”

There are three sorts of azoospermia:

  • Pre-testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by impaired production of the hormones to blame for creating sperm.
  • Testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by any abnormalities within the function or structure of the testicles.
  • Post-testicular azoospermia (obstructive) is caused by problems with ejaculation because of an obstruction of some sort within the reproductive tract.

What causes the different types of azoospermia?

Each sort of azoospermia has its own set of possible causes or associated conditions. Overall, genetic conditions that affect the Y chromosome may cause between 10 and 15 percent of cases of no or low sperm count.

Pre-testicular azoospermia

This non-obstructive type could also be caused by certain genetic disorders. as an example, Kallmann syndrome affects the body’s ability to supply gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and may, in turn, impact sperm production.

Issues with the brain, specifically damage to the hypothalamus or ductless gland, might also cause this sort of azoospermia. Taking certain medications or having radiation treatments for cancer can contribute yet.

Testicular azoospermia

This non-obstructive type may happen due to:

  • the absence of testicles (anorchia)
  • testicles that haven’t dropped (cryptorchidism)
  • testicles that don’t produce sperm (sertoli cell-only syndrome)
  • testicles that don’t produce mature sperm (spermatogenic arrest)
  • Klinefelter syndrome is another possibility, and should result when someone is born with chromosomes XXY rather than XY.

Other causes include:

  • having the mumps in late puberty
  • tumors
  • radiation
  • diabetes
  • prior surgery
  • reactions to certain medications
  • varicocele (when the veins coming from testicles are dilated/wide)

Post-testicular azoospermia

This obstructive type is present in about 40 percent of azoospermia cases. Obstruction may happen because of a missing connection somewhere, like within the epididymis or canal tubes that move and store sperm.

Congenital conditions can also cause obstruction. as an example, congenital bilateral absence of the canal (CBAVD) may be a genetic condition where the canal ducts that carry sperm from the testes could also be missing. It’s related to either having or carrying genes for fibrosis.

Other causes of obstructive azoospermia include things like previous or current infection, cysts, injury, or vasectomy.

What are the signs and symptoms of azoospermia?

You might not have any signs and symptoms or maybe recognize you've got got azoospermia till your efforts conceive are unsuccessful. Any different symptoms and symptoms or signs and symptoms you come across can be extra associated with the underlying causes, like hormonal imbalances or genetic chromosomal conditions.

Otherwise, feasible signs and symptoms would possibly include:

  • low intercourse drive
  • erectile dysfunction
  • lump, swelling, or pain across the testicles
  • reduced hair at the face or body

How is azoospermia recognized?

The maximum fundamental manner you is probably recognized with azoospermia is thru a semen analysis. Your medical doctor will ask you to ejaculate right into a cup and publish the specimen to a lab for testing. If no residing sperm is discovered within the ejaculate, it’s feasible you can have azoospermia.

Along with a bodily exam, your medical doctor may be interested by your clinical records. They might also additionally ask questions about:

  • your fertility records (whether or not or now no longer you’ve conceived children)
  • your own circle of relatives records (like cystic fibrosis or fertility problems)
  • ailments you had as a infant
  • distinctive surgical procedures or techniques you’ve needed to the pelvic vicinity or reproductive tract
  • records of infections, like urinary tract infections (UTIs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • previous or modern publicity to such things as radiation or chemotherapy
  • previous or modern remedy use
  • any feasible misuse of medicine or alcohol
  • latest infection that worried fever
  • latest publicity to excessive heat

Other diagnostic gear would possibly include:

  • blood checks to assess hormone stages or genetic conditions
  • ultrasound to visualise the scrotum and different elements of the reproductive tract
  • mind imaging to search for problems with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
  • biopsies to extra carefully look at sperm production

What are the clinical remedies for azoospermia?

Obstructive azoospermia can be handled through both reconnecting or reconstructing the tubes or ducts that aren’t permitting the sperm to flow. This might also additionally imply surgical treatment or different techniques. Hormonal remedies and medicines may additionally assist if the underlying motive is low hormone production.

Non-obstructive azoospermia might also additionally or might not reply to clinical treatment. But there’s a few top news: You might also additionally nevertheless be capable of obtain being pregnant with a organic infant thru in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

How? Your medical doctor can extract sperm from the testes the usage of a tiny needle. This retrieval can be executed throughout a biopsy as well. This system may go even in case you most effective have some sperm found in your testicles.

If you pick out to head this route, it’s crucial to acquire genetic counseling to recognize the basis motive and the way it could effect any organic children.

Are there any natural remedies that can help?

Home strategies to assist with sperm manufacturing can also additionally or might not paintings with azoospermia. While low sperm remember can also additionally reply nicely to positive herbs and nutritional changes, sperm that’s absent because of an obstruction or genetic circumstance might not reply withinside the equal manner (if at all).

That isn’t to mention that looking after your self through consuming a nicely-balanced weight loss plan, getting lots of rest, ingesting sufficient fluids, and retaining strain in test can’t assist. Aside from being concerned to your preferred nicely-being, bear in mind operating carefully together along with your health practitioner to decide what — if any — herbal treatments can also additionally assist to your case.

Things to try:

  • Eat a weight loss plan complete of whole, nutrient-dense meals to foster sperm manufacturing
  • Exercise regularly. Doing so can also additionally assist enhance testosterone levels
  • Try yoga or meditation to decrease your strain levels. Cortisol (strain hormone) can effect testosterone manufacturing
  • Ask your health practitioner approximately herbs and dietary supplements that could sell male fertility, like Tribulus terrestris, black seed, Coenzyme Q10, folic acid, horse chestnut, L-carnitine, Panax ginseng, and zinc.

Preventing azoospermia

There are a few methods you may shield sperm manufacturing in instances of azoospermia which can be because of such things as harm or positive medicines.

Try to:

  • Stay far from any sports, like difficult touch sports, that could damage your testes and reproductive tract.
  • Limit your publicity to radiation.
  • Speak together along with your health practitioner approximately the blessings and dangers of medicines that could effect sperm manufacturing.
  • Avoid sports that could divulge your testes to excessive temperatures, like saunas or steam baths    

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Tags:  male infertility,azoospermia, infertility, male infertility, no sperm, low sperm count

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