- by Medikoe Health Expert
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- Feb 09 2017
It is also known as epinephrine, is a stress hormone secreted by the adrenal glands on the kidneys. It plays a major role in preparing the body for a fight-or-flight reaction in threatening environments. An adrenaline rush is defined as a sudden increase in the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are divided into two parts: Outer Glands (adrenal cortex) and inner glands (adrenal medulla). The inner glands produce adrenaline.
When you perceive something as threatening or exciting, the hypothalamus in the brain signals to the adrenal glands that it is the time to produce adrenaline and other stress hormones. The adrenal glands produce adrenaline by transforming the amino acids tyrosine into dopamine. Oxygenation of dopamine yields noradrenaline, which is then converted into adrenaline.
Adrenaline binds to receptors on the heart, arteries, pancreas, liver, muscles and fatty tissue and increases heart rate and respiration and also inhibits the production of insulin and stimulates the synthesis of sugar and fat, which the body can use as a fuel in fight-or-flight situations.
It can cause a weakening of the heart muscle, heart failure or a heart attack in people with heart disease. Continuous heightened levels of stress hormones can lead to a shrinkage of the hippocampus, the brain’s main memory center. Adrenergic neurons in the brain stem also produce adrenaline. These neurons contain the enzyme PNMT, which is required for a gland or neuron to convert noradrenaline into adrenaline.
When stress chemicals function as neurotransmitters, they affect the storage of memories by activating the amygdala, a center of the brain involved in the processing and storage of negative emotions
It does not require treatment if occurring because of natural reasons. If excessive secretion of adrenaline is because of chronic stress, anxiety or panic disorder triggers then anti-anxiety medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, can alleviate symptoms by blocking the trigger. Beta-blockers are used to prevent heart failure, they bind to receptors on the heart.
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