- by Dr Shamaz Mohamed Eiliyah Dental Care
- 0 Shares
- Jan 27 2017
What is Oral Cancer?
Malignant neoplasm’s in and around the mouth represent the most common potentially lethal disease process with which we, the dental professions have to deal.
Areas in which the profession has involved include advice on
- primary prevention by avoidance of risk factors,
- screening for the detection of early lesion by careful examination,
- major involvement in the treatment and rehabilitation of those afflicted and
- participation in basic research on the causes and mechanism of the disease process itself.
Oral cancer is increasing in incidence worldwide. Through out the world malignant neoplasm of the mouth and pharynx rate as the 5th most common cancer in men and the 7th in women.
However the regional variation is such that in developing countries the frequency of squamous cell carcinoma is much greater, accounting for up to 40% of all malignancies in the Indian subcontinent.
The incidence of oral cancer increases with age. In the west, 98% of cases are in-patients over 40 years of age. In industrialized countries men are affected almost twice as often as women, probably due to their higher indulgence in risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco consumption for intraoral cancer and sunlight for lip cancer.
The incidence of tongue and other intraoral cancer for women is, however, greater than or equal to that for men in high prevalence area such as India, where chewing and smoking are also common in women. Ethnicity strongly influences prevalence due to social and cultural practices.
Lip cancer is most common in fair skin races, particularly in rural areas and in men who work out of doors. Intraoral cancer in western countries most commonly involves the lateral borders of the tongue and the floor of the mouth, followed by the buccal mucosa, mandibular alveolus, retromolar region and soft palate.
Causes of Oral Cancer:
Most cases of oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma can be attributed certain life – style risk factors and are thus preventable.
Tobacco: The chewing of tobacco, often in association with areca nut in the form of betel quids or pan, and smoking are the major cause for oral cancer. Areca nut is the major cause of the distressing condition Oral Submucous Fibrosis, which has a high rate of malignant transformation.
Alcohol: Excessive consumption of alcohol is the second most important risk factor. It acts synergistically with tobacco so that the combined damage is more than multiplied.
Diet: Diet is probably the next most powerful factor: The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E scavenge potentially mutagenic free radicals from damaged cells. They are best delivered naturally in red, yellow and green fruits and vegetables, and we should eat about five helpings of such foods per day.
Trace elements like Zinc and Selenium, and adequate supply and absorption of iron to prevent anemia are also important.
Of great current interest is the possibility of a role for Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV). The HPVs types 16 and 18 are known to be important in cancer of the uterine cervix, and are increasingly being found in oral lesions
Management of potentially malignant lesions and conditions:
.Control of Risk Factors
.Local measures and
Note We at Medikoe provide you with the best healthcare articles written and endorsed by experts of the healthcare industry to boost you knowledge. However, we strongly recommend that users consult a doctor or concerned service provider for expert diagnosis before acting on this information.