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Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes

Dr. Surjit Pal Singh

Dr. Surjit Pal Singh

  Chikka banaswadi, Bengaluru     Apr 5, 2017

   6 min     

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Overview

Diabetes Mellitus is generally known as diabetes. It is a combination of illnesses in which the body doesn’t produce enough or any insulin, doesn’t correctly use the insulin that is generated or exhibits an aggregation of both. When any of these things results, the body is incapable of getting sugar from the blood into the cells. Thus, commencing high blood sugar levels.

Glucose, the form of sugar found in your blood, is one of your prime energy sources. A deficiency of insulin causes sugar to develop in your blood, resulting in many health problems.

Symptoms of Diabetes 

  • Blurred vision

  • Cuts and wounds take longer to heal

  • Genital itching or thrush

  • Losing weight without trying to

  • Feeling more tired than usual

  • Being over dry and hungry

  • Going to the bathroom a lot, mainly at night

Although a large number of population with Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in childhood and early adulthood, the signs are the same at any age.

Adults identified with Type 1 diabetes may not know their symptoms as fast as children, which in turn will prove harmful as diagnosis, then treatment may be delayed. Excessive levels of glucose passed in the urine are an ideal breeding ground for the fungal infection which stimulates thrush.

Types of Diabetes

Are you concerned that you, your children or someone you know, might have diabetes? Having some of the signs of diabetes does not mean you certainly have the disorder, but you should always contact your physician, just to make sure.

The three main types of diabetes are:

  • Type 1 diabetes

  • Type 2 diabetes

  • Gestational diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes is a state in which your immune system damages insulin-making cells (beta cells) in your pancreas. The illness is usually diagnosed in kids and young people, so it used to be called juvenile diabetes.

  • Extreme appetite and thirst

  • Upset stomach and vomiting

  • Recurred urination

  • Unexplained weight loss, even though you’re eating and feel hungry

  • Fatigue and Blurry vision

  • Fast breathing 

  • Recurrent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina

  • Mood swings

Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is a permanent disease that restrains your body from accepting insulin the way it should. People with type 2 diabetes are supposed to have insulin resistance. The symptoms comprise:

  • Being very thirsty and Hungry
  • Peeing a lot

  • Blurry eyesight

  • Being irritable

  • Insensitivity in your hands or feet

  • Feeling of exhaustion  

  • Recurrent infections

  • Unexpected weight loss 

  • Dark blemishes around your neck or armpits (acanthosis nigricans)

Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is primarily seen in a pregnant woman who did not have diabetes before her fertility. Some women have more than one pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes. The symptoms are the same as other types of diabetes: blurry vision, unusual thirst, fatigue, nausea etc.

Read more- Early signs and symptoms of diabetes

Why do these symptoms occur?

In a healthy person, the pancreas liberates insulin to help the body store and utilise the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes arises when one or more of the following occurs:

  • When the pancreas does not generate any insulin

  • When the pancreas releases very little insulin

  • When the body is resistant to insulin, i.e. it does not respond appropriately to insulin 

The glucose stays in the blood, and is not being used for energy; therefore, these symptoms are seen. The body attempts to reduce blood glucose levels by rinsing the surplus glucose out of the body in the urine. 

What happens if the signs of diabetes are ignored?

Symptoms can often appear quite quickly and so; it is hard to disregard the signs of Type 1 diabetes. But there can be serious health problems like diabetic ketoacidosis, which may result in a possible fatal coma if left untreated.

Type 2 diabetes will not be difficult to miss as it spreads or evolves more slowly, especially in the initial stages when it can be challenging to spot the symptoms. But untreated diabetes affects many vital organs, including your blood vessels, heart, nerves, kidneys and eyes. Being rectified early and managing your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complexities, so check your risk here.

Prediabetes

Prediabetes is when your blood sugar is higher than usual. It can make you more prone to get type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Humans with type 2 diabetes nearly always had prediabetes first, but it doesn’t usually cause signs.

Prediabetes treatment can deter more critical health problems, including type 2 diabetes and problems with your heart, blood vessels, eyes, and kidneys. Exercising more and losing extra pounds can diminish those uncertainties. 

Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Foot ulcers are a complication of inadequately managed diabetes, forming as an effect of skin tissue breaking down and revealing the layers beneath. They’re most prevalent under your big toes and the balls of your feet, and they can hurt your feet down to the bones.

All people with diabetes can grow foot ulcers and foot pain, but proper foot care can help deter them. Cure for diabetic foot ulcers and foot pain varies depending on their causes. 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body yields high levels of blood acids called ketones. The infirmity begins when your body can’t produce an ample amount of insulin.  

Signs and symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

  • Extreme thirst

  • Recurrent urination

  • Nausea 

  • Vomiting

  • Abdominal discomfort

  • Confusion

  • Dizziness

  • Shortness of breath

  • Fruity-scented breath

More-specific reflections of diabetic ketoacidosis discovered through home blood and urine testing kits include:

  • High ketone levels in your urine

  • High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) 

How Can We Treat Different Types Of Diabetes?

Doctors use blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes.

A1C blood test evaluates your blood sugar levels over the past three months. This analysis assists the doctor to know how well your blood sugar is controlled and your risk of complications.

The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test estimates your blood sugar after you’ve starved for 8 hours. 

Treatment for type 1 diabetes requires injecting insulin into the fatty tissue just beneath your skin. The insulin may be in the form of a pen, syringe, needles, pump, inhaler, etc. 

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the:

  • Glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test

  • Random blood sugar test

  • Fasting blood sugar test

  • Oral glucose tolerance test 

To diagnose gestational diabetes, your doctor will examine your blood sugar levels between the 24th and 28th weeks of your pregnancy.

  • During the 3-hour glucose tolerance test, your blood sugar is examined after you fast overnight and then sip a sugary liquid.

  • During the glucose challenge test, your blood sugar is checked an hour after you drink a sugary liquid. 

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Tags:  Diabetics,Symptoms of Diabetes

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