- by Dr Paramesh S
- 6 Shares
- Apr 21 2017
Reference Body Weights of Indians Employed for Computing RDA, 2010
Age Group Reference Body Weight (Kg)
18-29 y 60.0
Adult woman (NPNL)
18-29 y 55.0
0 - 6 m 5.4
6 – 12 m 8.4
1 – 3 y 12.9
4 – 6 y 18.0
7 – 9 y 25.1
10 - 12 y 34.3
13 – 15 y 47.6
16 – 17 y 55.4
10 – 12 y 35.0
13 – 15 y 46.6
16 – 17 y 52.1
Aim for 1-1/2 to 2 cups of fruit per day. Any fruit or 100 percent fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. 1 cup of fruit or 100 percent fruit juice or 1/2 cup of dried fruit can be considered as 1 cup. It is better to serve the fruit raw without much cooking or taking juice out of it. Every diet should contain atleast 1 medium size fruit.
Include 2-1/2 cups of vegetables in your daily diet. Experts recommend that you cover half of your plate with vegetables at mealtimes. The vegetable food group is deliciously varied, including dark leafy greens, beans and peas, starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, and many more. In general, 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetables or vegetable juice or 2 cups of raw leafy greens can be considered as 1 cup from the vegetable group. Green leafy vegetables can be taken more than one serving, if fruit is not included in the diet. Inclusion of salads or raita not only helps in meeting the vitamin requirements but the meals would be attractive and have high satiety value due to the fibre content.
Set a goal of getting 5 to 6 ounces of grains per day. Grains are divided into two groups: whole grains and refined grains. Experts recommend that at least half your grains be whole. Whole grain cereals, parboiled grains, or malted grains give higher nutritive value. Refined grains, such as white-flour products, have been processed and have less nutritional value than whole grains. In general, one slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, cooked pasta or cooked cereal can be considered as a 1-ounce equivalent. Energy derived from cereals should be not more than 75 %. It is better to include 2 cereals in one meal like rice and wheat or rice and millets.
Aim for 5 ounces of proteins each day. 2 to 3 servings of pulses should be taken every day. All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts and seeds are part of the protein food group. In general, 1 ounce of meat, poultry or fish; 1/4 cup cooked beans; one egg; 1 tablespoon of peanut butter; or 1/2 ounce of nuts or seeds is considered a 1-ounce equivalent. Choose lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry, as well as omega-3-rich fish, such as salmon, trout, tuna and mackerel. As you are planning your weekly meals, include at least 8 ounces of cooked seafood. Opt for raw or unsalted nuts and seeds (measure out your portions — they're easy to overeat). To improve the proteins quality minimum ratio of cereal protein to pulse protein should be 4:1. In terms of the grains it will be 8 parts of cereals and 1 part of pulses. One egg weighs around 40 gm. This can be served along with cereals or pulses to improve the quality of protein. Instead, one serving of poultry/ fish can also be included in the diet.
Consume 3 cups of dairy each day. All fluid milk products and many milk-based foods are considered part of this food group. In general, 1 cup of milk, yogurt or soymilk (soy beverage), 1-1/2 ounces of natural cheese or 2 ounces of processed cheese can be considered as a 1-cup equivalent. When buying dairy products, opt for low fat or fat-free items.
Though oils are not considered a food group, they do provide nutrients essential for health. Derived primarily from plants, such as olive, vegetable, nut and avocado, oils can be used for cooking, baking and flavoring. Most oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, which are favorable to heart health. Aim for 5 to 6 teaspoons of oils each day.
Solid fats such as butter and lard, which tend to be high in saturated fats. Saturated fats, of course, are linked to heart disease and should be avoided.
Energy derived from fats or oils is 15-20 % of total calories.
UseNon-stick cookwares while cooking to reduce oil.
Water is considered to be the source of life. It is important for animal life because of the following reasons:
(i) Water is vital body fluid which is essential for regulating the processes such as , digestion , transport of nutrients and excretion. Water dissolves ionic and large number of polar organic compounds. Thus, it transports the products of digestion to the place of requirement of the body.
(ii) Water regulates the body temperature by the process of sweating and evaporation.
(iii) Water is a medium for all metabolic reactions in the body. All metabolic reactions in the body take place in solution phase.
(iv) Water provides habitat for various animals in the form of ponds and rivers, sea, etc.
How low levels of water affects our body:
- Dry mouth and skin
- Eyes stop making tears
- Muscle cramps
- Nausea and vomiting
- Excess fatigue & lightheadedness
- Heart palpitations
- Risk of colon, bladder & breast cancer
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