- by Dr Som Ranjan Pathak
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- Apr 24 2017
Inflammation around the Tooth-Periodontitis
Inflammation or swelling surrounding the tooth is called Periodontitis.
It is the inflammation of the structures supporting the tooth which involves the gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone surrounding the tooth.
It is a slowly progressing condition initial phase being the inflammation of gums and then loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth.
Periodontitis is eventually caused by the accumulation of plaque which gets adhered to the tooth surface and the micro organisms which multiply over a period of time destroying the healthy gums and the alveolar bone which in turn leads to mobility and loss of tooth.
Periodontitis is preventable in most cases. It is usually the result of dental hygiene that is not very well taken care of.
Periodontitis-Signs and symptoms:
The following can be included as the signs and symptoms of Periodontitis:
Gums that are swollen
Sometimes in chronic condition the gums may appear bluish red
Bleeding gums on brushing
Gums may recede downward (apically) making the tooth appear longer
Pain on the gums which is generally continuous and pulling or gnawing type
Gaps observed between the teeth due to migration
Presence of pus between the gums and the teeth
Experiencing salty taste in the mouth
Loosening of the teeth
Course of the disease:
The teeth and surrounding tissues are slowly damaged by the plaque.
Initially there is inflammation of gums seen which presents in the form of change in colour(redness), consistency(softer) and form.
There is development of pockets between the gums and the teeth which is a result of prolonged phase of gingivitis which deepens when neglected.
There might be eventual loosening of the teeth as the connective tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place weaken due to the response of the toxins in the bacteria and the response of our immune system to the infection.
Risk factors of periodontitis:
Something that increases the danger of building up a condition or sickness is called a risk factor. For instance, being overweight is a factor that increases the risk of diabetes (type2). This shows that people that are obese have a higher shot of creating diabetes. The accompanying danger elements are connected to a higher danger of periodontitis:
Smoking-Gum problems are more prevalent among smokers.The effect of treatment is also minimized due to smoking.
- Change of hormones in females - Women undergo hormonal changes during pregnancy, menopause and puberty, during which the risk of developing gum disease is higher.
People with Diabetes Individuals suffering from diabetes are at a higher risk of developing gum disease compared to the individuals of the same age as theirs.
AIDS –Gum diseases are more likely in people with AIDS
Cancer - Much of a problem is seen in people suffering from cancer or undergoing treatment for cancer
Some drugs -.The risk of gum disease is associated with some medications that decrease the production of saliva.
- Genetics –A few people are all the more hereditarily vulnerable to gum infections.
Diagnosis of periodontitis:
Periodontitis is best diagnosed by a qualified dentist, who will examine the patient’s oral health by direct clinical examination and with the help of certain instruments such as a periodontal probe which helps in evaluation of the depth of the periodontal pockets.
X-Ray may be recommended for examining the bone levels.
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