Different Types Of Mental Disorders
Domlur, Bengaluru Feb 9, 2017
Mental disability has plagued our kind for years now. However, it is not the illness in itself that is as worrisome as our social stigma against the same.
Of course, our eagerness to help patients get cured of their respective mental illnesses has gotten better over the years, complete support and incentive to continue with their lives is something that is still hard for most victims to find because of people’s demeanor towards them.
Mental Illness Defined
A mental illness is a sickness of the brain that gives rise to mild to harsh instability in thought and behavior, resulting in incapacity to handle with life’s usual routines and demands.
This means that a person affected by a mental illness cannot perform day to day actions like us without the support of the ones around them.
Problems Surrounding Mental Illness
The current challenges that this department faces causes us not to be able to take complete care of the ones affected among us.
One of the greatest fears of mental patients is if their family will abandon them. On the sight of the trouble of coping with a person with bad cognitive skills, families find it easier to abandon their relatives rather than having to take care of them.
Shamefully, across all age groups, bullying these patients is also common. According to reports, 62% of students suffering from autism report of being bullied once or more in a week. In the United States, people with mental disabilities are twice as likely to face bullying.
Another problem this arrear faces is the lack of acknowledgment of the disability. Especially in depression, where cognition is not reduced to dust, people believe that such people should simply break out of their ‘sadness’ and continue to live their normal lives.
Last but not the least, comes the problem of not having enough resources to help the affected population, especially in second and third world countries. In India, there is only one psychiatrist per 10 mentally ill patients. To govern our 31 million patients, we 3000 psychiatrists and 1000 psychologists. This has led to an increased loss of life due to mental disability.
Types Of Mental Illness
While there are more mental disorders to talk about than time and space will allow us, we’re selecting the most common mental disabilities, in an attempt to raise more awareness.
Again, please do realize the importance of the disorders below which are ‘seemingly insignificant’. For example, a patient with anxiety disorder needs just as much help as a patient with dementia.
Here are some of the types of mental retardation-
Anxiety Disorders– Anxiety disorders comprises of an unusually anxious, angry or dreaded reaction to a situation at hand. It can be marked by intense fear and panic, and physical signs such as sweating and increased heartbeat when the patient meets with a not-so-stressful situation.
There are various types of anxiety disorders-
- Social anxiety disorder- A fear of mingling with public
- Generalized anxiety disorder
- Panic disorder
- All the phobias
Mood Disorders– Also known as affective disorders, mood disorders involve a persistent feeling of continual sadness and sudden fluctuations among extreme moods. Patients affected by such will go from intensely happy at one moment to extremely sad.
Some common disorders are
- Depression– Depression is the feeling of hopelessness and self-loathing. Sufferers will not find joy in anything they encounter, no matter how happy or sad.
- Bipolar Disorder- Bipolar affects the brain such that the patient has extreme mood swings- from the happiest of states to complete sadness.
- Cyclothymic disorder- It is a relatively milder version of bipolar disorder.
Psychotic Disorders– Psychotic disorders cause a person to experience hallucinations- visually experiencing events around them that are not happening, or even hearing sounds in their heads. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder.
Impulse Control And Addiction Disorders– Impulse control disorders comprise of people not being able to resist urges that could be harmful to others. Some examples are-
- Kleptomania- An impulse of stealing others property
- Pyromania- An impulse of starting fires
- Alcohol And Drug Abuse
Personality Disorders– People with extreme and inflexible personality traits fall under this category. A patient’s behavior and thinking is too different from or is harmful to the rest of the society, causing these people to be incompatible to be a part of it. Antisocial personality disorder or paranoid personality disorder are some examples.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder– A lot of you might already have this to a minor extent without knowing it. However, the problem arises when this disease is more or less severe. Patients affected by this feel a compulsion to perform their daily self-made rituals or routines. These people also find it uncomfortable if objects around them are unclean or not patterned. Cases of an unreasonable fear of germs where the person cleans himself umpteen times a day are commonly seen.
PTSD- Post-traumatic sleep disorder is a condition which develops after a person has had a traumatic experience. Patients have long lasting frightening thoughts or memories of the event, sometimes in the form of dreams, which also hampers their sleep cycle.
ADHD- Found in kids, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes children to be incapable to pay more than an ounce of attention to one single work at hand. They are usually very energetic and hyperactive, to extents which are not comfortable to parents. It is usually better to transfer their energy into sports.
Some of the lesser known mental disorders, yet equally important and devastating, include:
- Alzheimer’s disease- A loss of memory among aged patients
- Sexual And Gender Disorders- A mental disorder affecting sexual performance, desire and behavior
- Tic Disorders- Characterized by tics- small events of unreasonable behavior. An example is Tourette’s syndrome
- Eating Disorders- Most commonly known is anorexia, where a patient starves himself because his mental image of himself makes him look too big. This disorder is mostly common in women. The opposite is known as bigorexia.
Due to the nature of mental problems, it is very difficult to determine the causes of mental illnesses or label preventive measures against such ailments, if there are any.
It is, therefore, necessary to have an everlasting presence of good mental health.
Some good mental health examples include freedom from and an ability to handle stress, having strong relationships and maintaining a positive outlook in life.
To help people fight the battle of anxiety, disturbance and depression, Portea offers counselling services over call, chat and home visits. One can discuss their personal & emotional issues with our qualified counsellors from the comfort of your home. Visit: portea.typeathought.com to know more.