All you need to know about Retinopathy and Diabetes
Medikoe Health Expert
Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru Feb 9, 2021
Excess sugar in your blood can cause the blockage of the tiny blood vessels that provide nourishment to the retina, blocking its blood supply. This causes the eye to grow new blood vessels that don't develop properly and may leak easily.
There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:
Early diabetic retinopathy: Also known as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, this causes the walls of the blood vessels in your retina to weaken. This condition can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked.
Advanced diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy can progress to a more severe form, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Here, damaged blood vessels close off, causing the growth of new and abnormal blood vessels in the retina that leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the centre of our eye (vitreous).
As your condition worsens, the symptoms may include:
Fluctuating or worsening vision
Impaired color vision
Dark or empty areas in your vision
Floaters in your vision
Redness in the eye
If you have had diabetes for a long time
Have a high blood sugar level
Have high blood pressure
An eye examination will usually tell if you have diabetic retinopathy. The doctor will dilate your pupils to check for any changes in blood vessels or to see if new ones have formed. The doctor will also check to see if your retina is swollen or has become detached.
Treatment depends on the type and severity of the diabetic retinopathy. Proliferative retinopathy may need quick surgical treatment. Some options are:
Photocoagulation: It is a procedure that is done to seal or destroy growing and leaking blood vessels in the retina, near the macula. It is usually not painful, but you may experience reduced night vision.
Vitrectomy: If your blood vessels leak into your retina and vitreous humor (the jelly-like substance that fills the eyeball), you may need to undergo a vitrectomy. This procedure removes the vitreous gel from the middle of the eye so that you can see well.
Your doctor will tell you which treatment is best for you as per the severity of the diabetic retinopathy.